Entrenamiento muscular inspiratorio en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca: una revisión de revisiones

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Bruno Bizzozero Peroni https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0614-5561
Valentina Díaz Goñi https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1724-1893

Resumen

El objetivo de esta revisión fue conocer la influencia del entrenamiento muscular inspiratorio (EMI) sobre la capacidad aeróbica y la fuerza muscular inspiratoria (FMI) en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca (IC). Realizamos una revisión de revisiones sistemáticas en PubMed y Web of Science hasta agosto de 2019. Se identificaron un total de 2053 artículos, de los cuales 4 se seleccionaron para esta revisión. Se utilizó la herramienta ‘Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2’ (AMSTAR-2) para evaluar la calidad de los estudios. En los estudios incluidos se examinaron un total de 10 intervenciones diferentes con 250 pacientes (rango edad media= 53-76 años). Todos los estudios presentaron nivel de confianza alto (AMSTAR-2). El EMI presentó mejoras significativas sobre la capacidad aeróbica (test de la marcha de 6 minutos: 46.66-71.04 metros; p<0.05 y VO2pico: 2.59-2.65 mL/kg-1/min-1; p<0.01) y la FMI (presión inspiratoria máxima: 16.57-23.36 cmH2O, p<0.05) en comparación al grupo control. Programas de intervención de EMI con una duración de 12 semanas reportaron mayores mejorías sobre la capacidad aeróbica y la FMI en comparación a programas de intervención de menor duración. El EMI es un tratamiento importante y necesario en la rehabilitación cardíaca de pacientes con IC. Son necesarios más estudios que analicen los efectos de diferentes rangos en las características del EMI.



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Cómo citar
Bizzozero Peroni, B., & Díaz Goñi, V. (2022). Entrenamiento muscular inspiratorio en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca: una revisión de revisiones. Ciencias De La Actividad Física UCM, 23(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.29035/rcaf.23.1.4