Papel de los ejercicios resistidos en la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en mujeres postmenopáusicas: revisión de literatura

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Roberto Carlos Rebolledo-Cobos Bruno Costa Teixeira Cleiton S. Correa

Resumen

El objetivo de la revisión fue explicar los efectos fisiológicos derivados de los ejercicios resistidos que influyen en la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en mujeres postmenopáusicas, con base a la bibliografía con mayor relevancia científica. Los hallazgos permiten compendiar: En las postmenopáusicas las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte. Esta población es vulnerable al desarrollo de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, poseen protección endógena hormonal anti-aterogénica. Los riesgos cardiovasculares en postmenopáusicas se asocian directamente con alteraciones metabólicas, bajos niveles de actividad física y sobrepeso. Los ejercicios resistidos en postmenopáusicas pueden ser una estrategia que atenúa el riesgo asociado a la lipemia. En conclusión, los ejercicios resistidos se consideran reductores del riesgo cardiovascular en postmenopáusicas debido a su efecto de oxidación de lípidos, derivado del gasto energético total, incluyendo el consumo excesivo de oxígeno pos-ejercicio más prolongado que los ejercicios aeróbicos, atenuando los niveles lidipémicos por más tiempo.



##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Sección
Revisión Teórica
Citas

Agrinier, N., Cournot, M., Dallongeville, J., Arveiler, D., Ducimetière, P., Ruidavets, J. y Ferrières, J. (2010). Menopause and modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors: a population based study. Maturitas, 65(3), 237-243.


Arce, A. y Welsch, E. (2007). High and Low Volume Resistance Training and Vascular Function. International Jorunal of Sports Medicine, 28(3), 217- 221.



Artero, E., Lee, D., Lavie, C., España-Romero, V., Sui, X., Church, T. y Blair, S. (2012). Effects of muscular strength on cardiovascular risk factors and prognosis. Journal of Cardiopulmonar Rehabilitation and Prevention, 32(6), 351-358.


Binzen, C., Swan, P. y Manore, M. (2001). Postexercise oxygen consumption and substrate use after resistance exercise in women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercice, 33(6), 932-938.


Borsheim, E. y Bahr, R. (2003). Effect of Exercise Intensity, Duration and Mode on Post- Exercise Oxygen Consumption. Sports Medicine, 33(14), 1037-1060.


Boyle, J. (2005). Macrophage activation in atherosclerosis: pathogenesis and pharmacology of plaque rupture. Current Vascular Pharmacology, 3(1), 63-68.


Burns, S., Corrie, H., Holder, E., Nightingale, T. y Stensel, D. (2005). A single session of resistance exercise does not reduce postprandial lipaemia. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(3), 251-260.


Campbell, W., Haub, M., Wolfe, R., Ferrando, A., Sullivan, D., Apolzan, J. e Iglay H.B. (2009). Resistance training preserves fat-free mass without impacting changes in protein metabolism after weight loss in older women. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17(7), 1332-1339.


Chan, D., Pang, J., Romic, G. y Watts, G. (2013). Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease: current and future therapies. Current Atherosclerosis Report, 15(3), 309-313.


Chedraui, P., Pérez-López, F., Escobar, G., Palla, G., Montt-Guevara, M., Cecchi, E. ... Simoncini, T. (2014). Circulating leptin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin, adipsin and ghrelin levels and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with and without the metabolic syndrome. Maturitas, 79(1), 86-90.


Costa, R., Lima, A., Tagliari, M. y Kruel, L. (2011). Effects of resistance training on the lipid profile in obese women. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 51(1), 169-177.


Cox-York, K., Sharp, T., Stotz, S., Bessesen, D., Pagliassotti, M. y Horton, T. (2013). The effects of sex, metabolic syndrome and exercise on postprandial lipemia. Metabolism, 62(2), 244-254.


dos Santos, E., Gadelha, A., Safons, M., Nóbrega, O., Oliveira, R. y Lima, R. (2014). Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity classifications and cardiometabolic risks in older women. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 59(1), 56-61.


Durstine, J.L., Grandjean, P.W., Cox, C.A., Thompson, P.D. (2002). Lipids, lipoproteins, and exercise. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 22(4), 385-398.


Elliott, K., Sale, C. y Cable, N. (2002). Effects of resistance training and detraining on muscle strength and blood lipid profiles in postmenopausal women. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(5), 340- 344.


Fahlman, M., Boardley, D., Lambert, C. y Flynn, M. (2002). Effects of endurance training and resistance training on plasma lipoprotein profiles in elderly women. Journal of Gerontology Series B Psychol Science and Social Science, 57(2), B54-60.


Gill, J. y Hardman, A. (2003). Exercise and postprandial lipid metabolism: an update on potential mechanisms and interactions with high-carbohydrate diets (review). Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 14(3), 122-132.


Gill, J., Mees, G., Frayn, K. y Hardman, A. (2001). Moderate exercise, postprandial lipaemia and triacylglycerol clearance. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 31(3), 201-207.


Haddock, B. y Wilkin, L. Resistance training volume and post exercise energy expenditure. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(2), 143-148.


Henry, N. (2000). Nonpharmacologic management of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The American Journal of Cardiology, 86(12A), 41-45.


Hill, S., Bermingham, M. y Knight, P. (2005). Lipid metabolism in young men after acute resistance exercise at two different intensities. Journal of Sciences and Medicine in Sports, 8(4): 441-445.


Kampoli, A., Tousoulis, D., Antoniades, C., Siasos, G. y Stefanadis, C. (2009). Biomarkers of premature atherosclerosis. Trends Molecular Medicine, 15(7), 323-332.


Kelley, G. y Kelley, K. (2009). Impact of progressive resistance training on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48(1), 9-19.


Kokalas, N., Petridou, A., Nikolaidis, I. y Mougios, V. (2005). Effect of aerobic exercise on lipaemia and its fatty acid profile after a meal of moderate fat content in eumenorrhoeic women. British Journal of Nutrition, 94(5): 698- 704.


Kolovou, G., Anagnostopoulou, K., Pavlidis, A., Salpea, K., Iraklianou, S., Hoursalas I. ... Cokkinos, D.V. (2006). Metabolic syndrome and gender differences in postprandial lipaemia. European Jorunal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, 13(4), 661-664.


Kolovou, G., Mikhailidis, D., Bilianou, H., Panotopoulos, G. y Nordestgaard, B. (2011). Definition of postprandial lipaemia. Current Vascular Pharmacology, 9(3), 292-301.


Kraus WE, Slentz CA. Exercise training, lipid regulation, and insulin action: A tangled web of cause and effect. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009, 17 (3), S21-26.


LaRosa, J., Pedersen, T., Somaratne, R. y Wasserman, S. (2013). Safety and effect of very low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular events. American Journal of Cardiology, 111(8), 1221- 1229.


Lee, C., Carr, M., Murdoch, S., Mitchell, E., Woods, N., Wener, M. ... Brunzell, J. (2009). Adipokines, inflammation, and visceral adiposity across the menopausal transition: a prospective study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94(4),1104-1110.


LeMura, L., von Duvillard, S., Andreacci, J., Klebez, J., Chelland, S. y Russo, J. (2000). Lipid and lipoprotein profiles, cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and diet during and after resistance, aerobic and combination training in young women. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 82, 451- 458.


Milewicz, T., Rajtar, R., Fedak, D., Kolasinska- Kloch, W., Krzysiek, J., Banach, T., Thor, T. (2006). TNFalpha and SVcam plasma levels during standard exercise test are higher in postmenopausal women with hypercholesterolemia. Przegl Lekarski, 63(8), 650-653.


Moreau, K., Deane, K., Meditz, A. y Kohrt, W. (2013). Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibition improves endothelial function and decreases arterial stiffness in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. Atherosclerosis, 230(2), 390- 396.


Park, S., Kim, J.Y., Lee, J. y Park, H.Y. (2011). Elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein concentrations in postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome. Clinical Chimical Acta, 412(5), 435-440.


Pearson, T., Blair, S. y Daniels, S. (2002). AHA Guidelines for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: 2002 Update: Consensus Panel Guide to Comprehensive Risk Reduction for Adult Patients Without Coronary or Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Diseases. American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Circulation, 106(2), 388- 391.


Perez-Martinez, P., Delgado-Lista, J., Perez- Jimenez, F. y Lopez-Miranda, J. (2010). Update on genetics of postprandial lipemia. Atherosclerosis Supplements, 11(1), 39-43.


Petitt, D., Arngrimsson, S. y Cureton, K. (2003). Effect of resistance exercise on postprandial lipemia. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(5), 694-700.


Pinto, R., Lupi, R. y Brentano, M. (2011). Metabolic responses to strength training: an emphasis on energy expenditure. Revista Brasleira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humuano, 13(2), 150-157.


Pirillo, A., Norata, G. y Catapano, A. (2014). Postprandial lipemia as a cardiometabolic risk factor. Current Medical Reseach and Opinion, 30(8), 1489-1503.


Poehlman, E., Dvorak, R., DeNino, W., Brochu, M. y Ades, P. (2000). Effects of resistance training and endurance training on insulin sensitivity in nonobese, young women: A controlled randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85(3): 2463-2468.


Polidoulis, I., Beyene, J. y Cheung, A. (2012). The effect of exercise on pQCT parameters of bone structure and strength in postmenopausal women-a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoporos International, 23(1), 39-51.


Prasad, M., Reriani, M., Khosla, S., Gössl, M., Lennon, R., Gulati, R. Lerman, A. (2014). Coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction is an independent predictor of development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Vascular Health and Risk Management, 10, 533-538.


Rahbar, A. y Nabipour, I. (2014). The relationship between dietary lipids and serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in postmenopausal women. Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets, 14, 84-92.


Sahade, V., França S. y Adan, L.F. (2013). The influence of weight excess on the postprandial lipemia in adolescents. Lipids in Health and Diseases, 12, 17-21.


Shannon, K., Shannon, R., Clore, J., Gennings, C., Warren, B. y Potteiger, J.A. (2005). Resistance exercise and postprandial lipemia: The dose effect of differing volumes of acute resistance exercise bouts. Metabolism, 54(6), 756-763.


Singhal, A., Trilk, J., Jenkins, N., Bigelman, K. y Cureton, K. (2009). Effect of intensity of resistance exercise on postprandial lipemia. Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(3), 823-829.


Tanasescu, M., Leitzmann, M., Rimm, E., Willett, W., Stampfer, M. y Hu, F. (2002). Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in men. JAMA, 288(2), 1994-2000.


Tibana, R., Pereira, G., de Souza, J., Tajra, V., Vieira, D., Campbell, C. Prestes, J. (2013). Resistance training decreases 24-hour blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, 5(1), 27-32.


Trejo-Gutierrez, J.F. y Fletcher, G. (2007). Impact of exercise on blood lipids and lipoproteins. Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 1(3), 175-181.


Tsetsonis, N.V. y Hardman, A.E. (1996). Effects of low and moderate intensity treadmill walking on postprandial lipaemia in healthy young adults. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 73(5), 419-426.


Wallace, M., Moffatt, R., Haymes, E. y Green, N. (1991). Acute effects of resistance exercise on parameters of lipoprotein metabolism. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercice, 23(2), 199-204.


Wooten, J., Phillips, M., Mitchell, J., Patrizi, R., Pleasant, R., Hein, R. Barbee, J. Resistance exercise and lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(1), 7-13.


Zafeiridis, A., Goloi, E., Petridou, A., Dipla, K., Mougios, V. y Kellis, S. (2007). Effects of low- and high-volume resistance exercise on postprandial lipaemia. British journal of Nutrition, 97(4), 471- 477.


Zafeiridis, A., Sarivasiliou, H., Dipla, K. y Vrabas, I.S. (2010). The effects of heavy continuous versus long and short intermittent aerobic exercise protocols on oxygen consumption, heart rate, and lactate responses in adolescents. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(5), 17-26.

Cómo citar
Rebolledo-Cobos, R., Costa Teixeira, B., & Correa, C. (2015). Papel de los ejercicios resistidos en la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en mujeres postmenopáusicas: revisión de literatura. Ciencias De La Actividad Física UCM, 16(1), 89-102. Recuperado a partir de http://revistacaf.ucm.cl/article/view/75