Efecto del entrenamiento pliométrico e isométrico en la fuerza explosiva de los atletas de balonmano

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Joao Victor da Costa Alecrim https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7449-0116
Jose Victor da Costa Alecrim Neto Mariana Oliveira Souza Gilberto Pivetta Pires

Resumen

La pliometría utiliza la capacidad reactiva del sistema neuromuscular para aumentar el poder de movimiento de una contracción excéntrica a una concéntrica. La isometría se refiere a un modo estático de entrenamiento, es decir, no hay cambios en la longitud de la fibra muscular. El balonmano es un deporte colectivo que involucra una gran cantidad y variedad de movimientos asociados con la manipulación del balón y la interacción con otros atletas. En términos de movimiento, el balonmano puede considerarse un deporte completo porque utiliza una rica combinación de las habilidades motoras fundamentales y "naturales" del repertorio motor humano. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la influencia de 4 semanas de entrenamiento pliométrico e isométrico en la fuerza explosiva de los jóvenes atletas de balonmano. La muestra consistió en 10 mujeres, con una edad promedio de 16.1 ± 0.56 años, que habían practicado balonmano durante al menos tres meses. El protocolo de evaluación utilizado fue: salto horizontal (HS) para medir la fuerza explosiva de la extremidad inferior. Las niñas se dividieron en dos grupos estadísticamente iguales, el grupo pliométrico (GP) y el grupo isométrico (GI). Los datos se analizaron usando la prueba t pareada y el Tamaño del efecto, así como el manual Proesp. Inicialmente, las pruebas presentaron los siguientes resultados: GP mostró 1.32 ± 0.13m en HS y GI 1.41 ± 0.10m. Después de cuatro semanas de entrenamiento, las pruebas se rehicieron y el GP mostró 1.37 ± 0.08m en HS y el GI 1.43 ± 0.09m. Estadísticamente, los cambios no fueron significativos, la magnitud del efecto y los resultados de menor fuerza explosiva fueron superficiales. Se concluye que, aunque estadísticamente insignificante, ambos métodos presentan poca evolución en la fuerza explosiva de las extremidades inferiores, y es necesario analizar un mayor tiempo de los métodos en estas ganancias y también analizar una propuesta concurrente entre ambos métodos.



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Cómo citar
Alecrim, J. V., Alecrim Neto, J. V., Souza, M., & Pires, G. (2019). Efecto del entrenamiento pliométrico e isométrico en la fuerza explosiva de los atletas de balonmano. Ciencias De La Actividad Física UCM, 20(2), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.29035/rcaf.20.2.10